BRIEF PROFILE OF DISTRICT PATHANKOT
Pathankot is a small city of Punjab at Latitude 32° 16' 40" N (southern limit) to 32° 21' 21" N (northern limit) and Longitude 75° 31' 15" E (western limit) to 75° 46' 56" E (eastern limit)., officially declared as district on 27 July, 2011 by Government of Punjab. In past, it was a Tehsil of the District Gurdaspur. It is a meeting point of the three northern states Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. Due to its ideal location, Pathankot serves as a travel hub for the three northerly states. It is the last city in Punjab on the national highway that connects Jammu and Kashmir with the rest of India. Situated in the picturesque foothills of Kangra and Dalhousie, with the river Chakki flowing close by, the city is often used as a rest-stop before heading into the mountains of Jammu and Kashmir, Dalhousie, Chamba, Kangra, Dharamshala, Mcleodganj, Jwalaji, Chintpurni and deep into the Himalayas. Pathankot also serves as education hub for the nearby areas of Jammu & Kshmir and Himachal. Many students basically from rural areas of these states come to study here.
Pathankot is an ancient city and has historical significance. It was ruled by many rulers. Till 1781, Pathankot was ruled by a Muslim descendant of Raja Sayed Khan of Nupur State. From the end of 17th century, this region was the part of the princely state – Nurpur and was ruled by the Rajputs. Nurpur state was established by Rana Bhet, a Taur Rajput of Delhi, who is well-known as Jatpal. Jatpal established his dynasty at Pathankot and took the control of whole country in the foot of the hills. In the end of 17th century, he shifted his capital to Nurpur.
In the great epic, Mahabharata, Pathankot is noted as Audumbar and in the ancient book of Ain-i-Akbari, it was noted as ‘Pargana Headquarter’. According to Sikh history, it is believed that, Pathankot was established by the first Sikh Guru – Guru Nanak Dev Ji. During the Medieval period, when the Ghilzai tribe of Pathan in Afghanistan came into power - the Pathan tribes of Afghanistan – Marwat, khattak, yusufzai and other Pathans moved to India. They settled in the places like Pathankot and Hoshiarpur. Hence the city got its name as Pathankot.
According to the famous historian - Cunnigham the name of Pathankot originated from the word ‘Pathan’. Rajput Rulers - During 17-18th century this region was ruled by Rajput rulers. Pathankot is world famous for its Military station – Mammon Cantt. It is the biggest Military base in Asia.
State limits in ancient times :- Nurpur state in ancient times included Pathankot, Shahpur and Kandi and a large tract on the plains; in addition to the whole of the present Nurpur Tahsil, except the tappa of Gango. A small tract to the west of the Ravi, called Lakhanpur, now in Jammu, was also within the state in later times. (District Gazetteer, Kangra District 1924-1925)
The state was bounded on the north by Chamba, on the east by Kangra and Gular, on the south by the Punjab plains, and on the west by the Ravi. The original capital and nucleus was Pathankot, of which the name in Mughal times was Paithan, an abbreviation of Pratishthana, meaning, “the firmly established place.” (History of Punjab Hill States - J Hutchison and J. PH. Vogel) Sir A. Cunningham was at first inclined to regard it as “a genuine Hindu word derived from pathan, meaning ‘road’ as if intended to describe the first meeting of the roads which there takes place” This derivation, however, he afterwards abandoned in favour of Pratishthana, of which the abbreviated name, Paithan, is found both in the Aini-i-Akbari and Badshahnamah. “I can find no trace of the name in the historians of Alexander, but the quotations which I have given from Varahamihira and the Puranas show that the name was well known before the Muhammdan invasions. (Ancient India - Rapson)
Total area of the district is 929 Sq. Km.
The Pathankot district is the northern most district of Punjab state. It falls in the Jalandhar division and is sandwitched between river Ravi and Beas. Pathankot is a small city of Punjab at Latitude 32° 16' 40" N (southern limit) to 32° 21' 21" N (northern limit) and Longitude 75° 31' 15" E (western limit) to 75° 46' 56" E (eastern limit)., and shares common boundaries with Kathua district of Jammu and Kashmir state in the north, Chamba and Kangra districts of Himachal Pradesh in the north-east, Hoshiarpur district in the south-east, Kapurthala district in the south, Gurdaspur district in the south west and Pakistan in the north west.
Pathankot has an average elevation of 332 metres (1,089 ft). It is a green town with the Ravi and Chakki rivers on either side. Shiwalik foothills kissing on the south and east and snow capped Himalayas in the back drop in north, Pathankot is last but not the least city of Punjab.
There is two tehsils in newly carved district i.e. Pathankot itself & Dhar kalan which is arounf 30 km from distrit Head quaters and foot of Shivalik hills.
The land scape of the pathankot district has varied topography comprising the hilly tract, undulating plan, the flood plains of the Ravi and the Beas and the up land plain.
The hilly tract covering the north-eastern parts of Pathankot and Dhar tehsils have a typical land topography, ranging in elevation from about 381 to 930 metre above sea level. From north to south the tract consists of three small ranges running in north west to south east direction – The Siali Dhar-Dangahri Dhar range the Dhaula Dhar-Nag Dhar range and the Rata Dhar range. The Siali Dhar-Dangahri Dhar range lies to the extreme north. In its western part Siali Dhar is about 931 metres above sea level at its highest point and in the eastern part about 959 metres. This range is highly dissected by numerous streams. South of this is situated the Dhaul Dhar-Nag Dhar which is about 13 km long and at places about 2.5 km. wide and has an elevation varying from about 610 to 844 metres above sea level. The Rata Dhar is marking the boundary between the hilly tract at the dissected undulating plain having and elevation of about 665 metres above sea level.
To its south lies an area of about 128 sq.kms which is highly dissected and is an undulating plain. Its elevation ranges from about 305 to 381 meters above sea level. It is travessed by a number of choas and has an undulating topography.
The flood plains of the Ravi and the Beas are separated from the up land plain by sharp river cut bluffs. They are low lying, with slightly uneven topography. Sand dominates in the soil structure of the flood plains, but it diminishes in both quantity and coarseness in the upland plain.
RIVER SYSTEM and POWER RESOURCES
Rivers, Tributaries and Canals
The Beas and the Ravi are the two rivers of the district and Upper Bari Doab Canal system which irrigates the most parts of the district.
River Chakki Khad
It is raising from the southern face of the Rohtang Pass in Kullu at an altitude of about 4,062 metres, traversing the districts of Kullu, Mandi and Kangra in Himachal Pradesh, All through its course, a strip of shallow alluvial soil fringes its banks which are subject to inundation during the rainy season. The main channel of the river is broad, dotted with islands and wide pools. The depth of water varies from about 1.5 metres during the dry seasons to about 4.5 metres during the rainy seasons.
The Chakki Khad is the chief tributary of the Beas in Pathankot district. This stream rise in the hills surrounding Dalhousie and for some distance forms the boundary of the district with Kangra. After collecting the drainage of the Chamba Hills, it joins the Beas near Mirthal.
After traversing the mountainous areas of Himachal Pradesh, it enters the district. With its general south – western course, it forms the boundary between the Punjab and the Jammu and Kashmir State for about 40 km. Further, it traverse well within the territory of the district for about 26 km till reaches Mirzapur, from where it again marks roughly the western boundary of the district and the international boundary between India and Pakistan for a distance of about 58 km. A number of tributaries join it from both sides. On its right bank it is joined by the Ujh, the Jalalia, the Shingarwan and the Masto, all of which rise in the Jammu hills.
Like other rivers of the Punjab, the discharge of the Beas and the Ravi fluctuates from season to season and year to year. The drive winters have only a trickle of water in these rivers. As summer approaches, the melting of snow in their forces in their source areas releases more water. The rivers are swollen into floods during the rainy seasons. The fluctuating discharge of the rivers does not permit their navigational use.
Apart from these natural drainage lines, the district possesses a fairly dense net work of canals of the Upper Bari Doab Canal System which irrigates most of the upland plain of the Pathankot District. Its main branches traversing through the upland plain of the district are the Lahore branch, the Kasur branch and the Sabhraon branch. Through about a 19 km long canal, the Ravi-Beas link, completed around 1954 diverts part of the Ravi water into the Chakki Khad which is tributary of the Beas. Some drains have also been constructed to drain flood water.
Ranjit Sagar Dam : 600 MW with Punjab share of 452 MW Ranjit Sagar Dam is one of the latest multipurpose river valley projects under construction on river Ravi about 24 Kms. upstream of Madhopur Head Works. This project mainly comprises of 160 m high dam ,600 MW Power Plant with four units of 150 MW capacity each.
Shahpur Kandi Project(168 MW): This project was inaugurated by Sh PV Narsimha Rao Prime Minister of India and will be constructed on River Ravi about 11 Km downstream of RSD and 8km upstream of Madhopur Head Works for harnessing and regularising the release of water from RSD for generation of Power. There will be 61 m high dam and 2 power houses with installed capacity of 168 MW.